Week 1 – Reflective Journal Entry

Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 Overview

Chapter 2 – History of Instructional Design & Technology

“Instructional media has been defined as the physical means via which instruction is presented to learners” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2017, p. 8). Instructional media can include: live instructor, textbook, and computer; however, historically “three primary means of instruction prior to the twentieth century include – the teacher, the chalkboard, and the textbook” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2017, p. 8).

Common Uses for Instructional Media:

  • School Museums: films, slides, and photographs
  • World War II: audiovisual devices, training films, overhead projectors, simulators
  • Television: educational television, junior-college curriculum,
  • Computer: education, training, computer-assisted instruction (CAI),
  • Recent Developments: Internet, CD-Rom, satellite, smartphone, tablets

“Instructional design and technology has been closely associated with the use of systematic instructional design procedures” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2017, p. 13). Several procedures/models have been developed to include: the system approach, instructional system design (ISD), instructional development, and instructional design (Reiser & Dempsey, 2017).

Development of Instruction Design

  • World War II: research to create training materials, skills assessments
  • B.F. Skinner identifies increased human learning and desired characteristics of effective instructional materials
  • Robert Mager recognized the need to teach educators how to write objectives
  • Criterion-referenced tests measure performance level of individual
  • Robert Gagne developed five domains of learning to explain hierarchy of learning and nine events of instruction
  • Michael Scriven introduced formative evaluation with the idea that learners could try a draft and it could be revised before a final product
  • The Internet allows for instruction to be delivered online
  • Evaluating timeliness of ADDIE model

Chapter 3 – Characteristics of Foundational Instructional Design Models

Nine Features of General System Theory

“ADDIE is based on a systematic product development concept” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2017, p. 24). Furthermore, Reiser and Dempsey (2017) state, “creating products using an ADDIE process remains one of the effective tools; however, ADDIE is not a specific, fully elaborated model in its own rights, but rather a paradigm that refers to a family of models” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2017, p. 24).

The ADDIE Training Model Fully Explained - TalentLMS Blog

Seven Characteristics of Instructional Design

  • Student-centered process
  • Goal-oriented process
  • Creative process
  • focuses on meaningful performance
  • assumes outcomes are measurable, reliable and valid
  • empirical, iterative, and self-correcting process
  • typically a team effort


Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2017). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. (4th. ed.). Pearson: Boston, MA.

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